An outsider is also defined from the point of view of the deviant as those from the social group who act as judges and arbiters of the rules. The author explores deviant behaviour as a phenomenon of definition, as opposed to one of characteristics. That is to say that deviant behaviour is more a question of judgement by a group than a characteristic of the deviant person. Therefore accepting the label 'deviant' means implicitly accepting the values of the social group making the judgement.
He found that crime is not so much a violation of a penal code as it is an act that outrages society. As a contributor to American Pragmatism and later a member of the Chicago SchoolGeorge Herbert Mead posited that the self is socially constructed and reconstructed through the interactions which each person has with the community.
The labeling theory suggests that people obtain labels from how others view their tendencies or behaviors. Each individual is aware of how they are judged by others because he or she has attempted many different roles and functions in social interactions and has been able to gauge the reactions of those present.
Family and friends may judge differently from random strangers. More socially representative individuals such as police officers or judges may be able to make more globally respected judgments. If deviance is a failure to conform to the rules observed by most of the group, the reaction of the group is to label the person as having offended against their social or moral norms of behavior.
This is the power of the group: Labeling theory concerns itself mostly not with the normal roles that define our lives, but with those very special roles that society provides for deviant behaviorcalled deviant roles, stigmatic roles, or social stigma.
A social role is a set of expectations we have about a behavior. Social roles are necessary for the organization and functioning of any society or group. We expect the postman, for example, to adhere to certain fixed rules about how he does his job.
Deviant behavior can include both criminal and non-criminal activities. Investigators found that deviant roles powerfully affect how we perceive those who are assigned those roles. They also affect how the deviant actor perceives himself and his relationship to society.
The deviant roles and the labels attached to them function as a form of social stigma. Always inherent in the deviant role is the attribution of some form of "pollution" or difference that marks the labeled person as different from others.
Society uses these stigmatic roles to them to control and limit deviant behavior: For example, adultery may be considered a breach of an informal rule or it may be criminalized depending on the status of marriagemorality, and religion within the community. In most Western countries, adultery is not a crime.
Attaching the label "adulterer" may have some unfortunate consequences but they are not generally severe. But in some Islamic countries, zina is a crime and proof of extramarital activity may lead to severe consequences for all concerned. Stigma is usually the result of laws enacted against the behavior.
Laws protecting slavery or outlawing homosexuality, for instance, will over time form deviant roles connected with those behaviors. Those who are assigned those roles will be seen as less human and reliable.The Sociology Books Top The Sociology Books Top is a list of some of the greatest works in sociology.
A broad list of classics, it spans from the founders of sociology, Marx, Durkheim and Weber, to modern . Summary. The author defines a deviant as one who deviates from the rules of some social group (and who therefore is an outsider to that group).
An outsider is also defined from the point of view of the deviant as those from the social group who act as judges and arbiters of the rules.. The author explores deviant behaviour as a phenomenon of definition, as opposed to one of characteristics.
Howard Becker's Outsiders broke new ground in the early s, arguing that social deviance is a more common phenomenon that perceived and that conventional wisdom /5(18). Outsiders—Defining Deviance HOWARD BECKER In this article, Howard Becker defines “outsiders” as individuals who break a rule agreed on by a group.
Becker also claims that rule breakers may perceive a person who enforces the rule as an outsider. In other words. A Journal of Catholic and Evangelical Theology Phillip Cary, Editor. Pro Ecclesia is the theology journal of the Center for Catholic and Evangelical webkandii.com publishes academically rigorous articles on biblical, liturgical, historical and doctrinal topics, aiming to serve the church (and thus be pro ecclesia), promote its ecumenical unity (and thus .
From the beginning, both sociology and photography worked on a variety of projects.
Among these, for both, was the exploration of society.