Landscape and garden design in history

In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified, protected, and improved while undesirable species were eliminated. Eventually alien species were also selected and incorporated into the gardens.

Landscape and garden design in history

Introduction[ edit ] Robert Hart 's forest garden in Shropshire, England. Forest gardeninga plant-based food pro-system, is the world's oldest form of gardening. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified, protected, and improved while undesirable species were eliminated.

Eventually alien species were also selected and incorporated into the gardens. Though no one knows the specific details of the first garden, historians imagine the first enclosure was a type of barrier for excluding animals and marauders. Garden construction and design was a primary precursor to landscape architecture, and it began in West Asia, eventually spreading westward into Greece, Spain, Germany, France, Britain, etc.

The modern words of "garden" and "yard" are descendants of the Old English " geard ", which denotes a fence or enclosure. De architectura libri decem Ten Books on Architecture addressed design theory, landscape architecture, engineering, water supply, and public projects, such as parks and squares.

Vitruvius asserted that firmitas firmness, durability, strengthutilitas commodity, convenience, utility and venustas delight, loveliness, beauty were the primary objectives of design. Some still consider these elements essential to quality design of landscape. Egyptian tomb paintings of the 16th century BC are some of the earliest physical evidence of ornamental horticulture and landscape design; they depict lotus ponds surrounded by symmetrical rows of acacias and palms.

Another ancient tradition is of Persia: Darius the Great was said to have had a " paradise garden " and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were renowned as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Persian gardens were designed along a central axis of symmetry.

Persian influences extended to Hellenistic Greece after Alexander the Great. Epicurus had a garden where he walked and taught, and he bequeathed it to Hermarchus of Mytilene. Alciphron also referenced private gardens in his writing.

Kinds of design

The most influential ancient gardens in the western world were those of Ptolemy in AlexandriaEgypt and the horticultural tradition that Lucullus brought to Rome. Wall paintings in PompeiiItaly attest to later elaborate development.

The wealthiest Romans built extensive villa gardens with water features, including fountains and rivulets, topiaryroses, and shaded arcades. Archeological evidence survives at sites such as Hadrian's Villa. Byzantium and Moorish Spain continued horticultural traditions after the 4th century AD and the decline of Rome.

By this time, a separate horticultural tradition formed in Chinawhich was transmitted to Japanwhere it developed into aristocratic gardens featuring miniaturized and simulated natural landscapes centered on ponds, and the severe Zen garden form featured at temples. The rediscovery of descriptions of antique Roman villas and gardens led to the creation of a new form of garden, the Italian Renaissance garden in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.

The Spanish Crown built the first public parks of this era in the 16th century, both in Europe and the Americas. In the 19th century a welter of historical revivals and Romantic cottage-inspired gardening emerged.

In EnglandWilliam Robinson and Gertrude Jekyll were influential proponents of the wild garden and the perennial gardenrespectively. Andrew Jackson Downing and Frederick Law Olmsted adapted European forms for North America, especially influencing the design of public parkscampuses and suburban landscapes.

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Olmsted's influence extended well into the 20th century.Kirk Johnson has explained how the formal landscape design style finally met its match with the rise in the 18th century of English landscape garden design (although the two movements shared a love for the green tapestry made possible by lawn grass).

The History of Landscape Design in Gardens explores the key moments in garden design. Through profiles of of the most influential gardens, Linda Chisholm explores how social, political, and economic influences shaped garden design webkandii.coms: 1.

Garden and landscape design: Garden and landscape design, the development and decorative planting of gardens, yards, grounds, parks, and other types of areas. Garden and landscape design is used to enhance the settings for buildings and public areas and in recreational areas and parks.

Twenty essays on gardens in different cultures and throughout history; connections are made between gardens and other gardenlike inventions, such as national parks, amusement parks, and hunting parks. Well illustrated.

Landscape and garden design in history

Jellicoe, Geoffrey, and Susan Jellicoe. The Landscape of Man: Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. London: Thames & Hudson, Garden construction and design was a primary precursor to landscape architecture, and it began in West Asia, eventually spreading westward into Greece, Spain, Germany, France, Britain, etc.

Landscape and garden design in history

The modern words of "garden" and "yard" are descendants of the Old . The History of Landscape Design in Gardens explores the key moments in garden design. Through profiles of of the most influential gardens, Linda Chisholm explores how social, political, and economic influences shaped garden design webkandii.coms: 4.

Garden design - Wikipedia