Extended essay cover sheet 2015

Suspend her so that the spikes just barely touch, then let the body's own elasticity do the rest.

Extended essay cover sheet 2015

General features and dynamics[ edit ] Hypothetical sea ice dynamics scenario showing some of the most common sea ice features.

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Sea ice does not simply grow and melt. During its lifespan, it is very dynamic. Due to the combined action of winds, currents, water temperature, and air temperature fluctuations, sea ice expanses typically undergo a significant amount of deformation. Sea ice is classified according to whether or not it is able to drift, and according to its age.

Fast ice versus drift or pack ice[ edit ] Sea ice can be classified according to whether or not it is attached or frozen to the shoreline or between shoals or to grounded icebergs.

If attached, it is called landfast ice, or more often, fast ice from fastened. Alternatively, and unlike fast ice, drift ice occurs further offshore in very wide areas, and encompasses ice that is free to move with currents and winds.

The physical boundary between fast ice and drift ice is the fast ice boundary. The drift ice zone may be further divided into a shear zone, a marginal ice zone and a central pack. There are names for various floe sizes: It may consist of frazil ice plates or spicules of ice suspended in waterslush water saturated snowor shuga spongy white ice lumps a few centimeters across.

Other terms, such as grease ice and pancake iceare used for ice crystal accumulations under the action of wind and waves.

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Nilas designates a sea ice crust up to 10 centimetres 3. It bends without breaking around waves and swells. Young ice is not as flexible as nilas, but tends to break under wave action. In a compression regime, it will either raft at the grey ice stage or ridge at the grey-white ice stage.

First-year sea ice is ice that is thicker than young ice but has no more than one year growth. In other words, it is ice that grows in the fall and winter after it has gone through the new ice — nilas — young ice stages and grows further but does not survive the spring and summer months it melts away.

The thickness of this ice typically ranges from 0. For this reason, this ice is generally thicker than first-year sea ice. Old ice is commonly divided into two types: In some sources, [5] old ice is more than 2-years old.

Extended essay cover sheet 2015

Multi-year ice is much more common in the Arctic than it is in the Antarctic. In the Arctic, much of the sea ice is land-locked. Wind is thought to be the main driving force along with ocean currents.

An ice floe converging toward another and pushing against it will generate a state of compression at the boundary between both. The ice cover may also undergo a state of tension, resulting in divergence and fissure opening. If two floes drift sideways past each other while remaining in contact, this will create a state of shear.

Deformation[ edit ] Sea ice deformation results from the interaction between ice floes, as they are driven against each other.

The end result may be of three types of features: A shear ridge is a pressure ridge that formed under shear — it tends to be more linear than a ridge induced only by compression. In contrast, a weathered ridge is one with a rounded crest and with sides sloping at less than 40 degrees.

They result from the interaction between fast ice and the drifting pack ice. Level ice is sea ice that has not been affected by deformation, and is therefore relatively flat. Leads are narrow and linear — they vary in width from meter to km scale. During the winter, the water in leads quickly freezes up.For Shackled: I would first put her feet to the fire, to male them a bit more sensitive, then apply the bastinado to secure her confession.

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