He was raised by his mother, Hajieh Agha Khanum, and his aunt, Sahebeth, following the murder of his father, Seyyed Mostafa Hendi, five months after his birth in Khomeini accepted the invitation, moved,  and took up residence at the Dar al-Shafa school in Qom. So, upon arriving in Qom, Khomeini sought the guidance of Mirza Ali Akbar Yazdi, a scholar of philosophy and mysticism.
General secretary of the CPSU: He became a candidate member of the Politburo in and a full member in He owed a great deal of his steady rise in the party to the patronage of Mikhail Suslovthe leading party ideologue.
Upon his accession, he was still the youngest member of the Politburo.
To this end, he called for rapid technological modernization and increased worker productivity, and he tried to make the cumbersome Soviet bureaucracy more efficient and responsive. German Federal Archive BundesarchivBildphotograph: Hartmut Reiche When these superficial changes failed to yield tangible results, Gorbachev in —88 proceeded to initiate deeper reforms of the Soviet economic and political system.
Rainer Mittelstadt In foreign affairs, Gorbachev from the beginning cultivated warmer relations and trade with the developed nations of both West and East. In December he signed an agreement with U. President Ronald Reagan for their two countries to destroy all existing stocks of intermediate-range nuclear-tipped missiles.
In —89 he oversaw the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan after their nine-year occupation of that country. Courtesy Ronald Reagan Library In October Gorbachev was able to consolidate his power by his election to the chairmanship of the presidium of the Supreme Soviet the national legislature.
Accordingly, under changes made to the constitution in Decembera new bicameral parliament called the U. Supreme Soviet that, in contrast to its predecessor of that name, was a real standing parliament with substantial legislative powers.
In May Gorbachev was elected chairman of this Supreme Soviet and thereby retained the national presidency. Throughout he had seized every opportunity to voice his support for reformist communists in the Soviet-bloc countries of eastern Europe, and, when communist regimes in those countries collapsed like dominoes late that year, Gorbachev tacitly acquiesced in their fall.
As democratically elected, noncommunist governments came to power in East GermanyPolandHungaryand Czechoslovakia in late —90, Gorbachev agreed to the phased withdrawal of Soviet troops from those countries. In Gorbachev received the Nobel Prize for Peace for his striking achievements in international relations.
In response, Gorbachev used military force to suppress bloody interethnic strife in several of the Central Asian republics in —90, while constitutional mechanisms were devised that could provide for the lawful secession of a republic from the U.
With the CPSU waning in power and steadily losing prestige in the face of the mounting impetus for democratic political procedures, Gorbachev in further accelerated the transfer of power from the party to elected governmental institutions.was the best year for pop: Years in DDP: 2 Best position: th= () (THEME) They've missed out on Fat Larry and J Geils, but there's enough stars left from 's hit parade to make this team.
I can see why this recording won a Grammy Award. It's one of the cleanest recordings of Prokofiev's Peter and the Wolf I've ever heard, and Beintus' Wolf Tracks is a gorgeous piece of work.
This virtual museum is devoted to the history of the Gulag, the vast network of labor camps which was once scattered across the length and breadth of the Soviet Union, from the islands of the White Sea to the shores of the Black Sea, from the Arctic circle to the plains of Central Asia, from Murmansk to Vorkuta to Kazakhstan, from central Moscow to the Leningrad suburbs.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March ) is a Russian and formerly Soviet politician. He was the eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, having been General Secretary of the governing Communist Party of the Soviet Union from until Education: Law.
would see Gorbachev's introduction of glasnost, which gave new freedoms to the people, such as a greater freedom of webkandii.com was a radical change, as control of speech and suppression of government criticism had previously been a central part of the Soviet system.
Mikhail Gorbachev was known as a hard worker, excellent student and did his best to help support his family. His interest in politics lead him to join the Komsomol.
His interest in politics lead him to .